Palatine is located at 42°6'37" North, 88°2'2" West (42.110278, -88.033889).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 13.11 mi2 (33.95 km2). 12.97 mi2 (33.60 km2) of it is land and 0.13 mi2 (0.35 km2) of it is covered by water. The total area is 1.02% water.
Palatine is located in the Central Standard Time (CST) timezone, GMT-06:00. It observes Daylight Saving Time (DST).