Pattonsburg is located at 40°2'47" North, 94°8'8" West (40.046389, -94.135556).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.35 mi2 (3.50 km2). 1.34 mi2 (3.48 km2) of it is land and 0.01 mi2 (0.02 km2) of it is covered by water. The total area is 0.59% water.
Pattonsburg is located in the Central Standard Time (CST) timezone, GMT-06:00. It observes Daylight Saving Time (DST).