Carter is located at 47°46'51" North, 110°57'20" West (47.781111, -110.955556).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.91 mi2 (7.54 km2). 2.91 mi2 (7.53 km2) of it is land and 0.00 mi2 (0.01 km2) of it is covered by water. The total area is 0.14% water.
Carter is located in the Mountain Standard Time (MST) timezone, GMT-07:00. It observes Daylight Saving Time (DST).