Columbia City is located at 45°53'25" North, 122°48'20" West (45.890278, -122.805556).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.10 mi2 (2.84 km2). 0.75 mi2 (1.93 km2) of it is land and 0.35 mi2 (0.91 km2) of it is covered by water. The total area is 31.93% water.
Columbia City is located in the Pacific Standard Time (PST) timezone, GMT-08:00. It observes Daylight Saving Time (DST).